Like all voles, it has small eyes, a short tail and a rounded snout. Bank voles avoid being caught by their many predators by sticking to dense vegetation and even using underground tunnels for safety. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). An individual’s territory will be marked out by regular urine spraying along the boundary. Average lifespan is 0.5-2 years, with most individuals not lasting more than one breeding season (Macdonald 2001; Ostfeld 1985). Southern, H., V. Lowe. Bank voles are common and widespread across the UK. Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream). Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. 1999; Horne and Ylonen 1998). There is a rich fossil record in the Pleistocene (Macdonald 2001). The bank vole lives in woodland, hedgerows, parks and gardens. Upon reaching maturity, males disperse, while females stay in their natal area (Macdonald 2001). Look for them along woodland edges and hedgerows. 2001; Prevot-Julliard et al. Agile, alert and rarely seen. "CITES" (On-line). Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 268: 661-666. 2001. National Science Foundation The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. 1999). In winter the bank vole will create a store of seeds near its underground burrow to see it through the colder months. They don’t hibernate so you can spot them all year round. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Delayed maturation in female bank voles: optimal decision or social constraint. 1997). Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 265: 1129-1134. Fish & Wildlife Service" (On-line). Bank Vole - Myodes glareolus Taxon: Rodentia Habitat: Urban & gardens, deciduous woodland, grassland, mixed woodland, heathland, arable land. Females will kill the pups of their female neighbors and males will kill pups as a mating tactic (Koskela et al. However, the species will be affected by damage and destruction to hedgerows and woodland, which represent important habitat. Long, cold winters and short, wet summers. Small rodent populations and food supply in a Derbyshire Ahswood. By 1990 the bank vole had crossed the Shannon river and can now be found in county Galway and other areas of Connaught. They produce three to four litters of between three and five young per year. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. Once pregnant the gestation period lasts between sixteen and eighteen days, newborn bank voles are born blind and furless weighing around 2 grams and are called pups. The female is the sole provider of parental care (Macdonald 2001). "Myodes glareolus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. 1998. It uses its large ears to listen out for its many predators, such as the fox and kestrel. Bank voles are very small rodents which are often mistaken for mice. having more than one female as a mate at one time. The pups are weaned at the age of 20-25 days (Macdonald 2001; Oksanen et al. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. 1996. Find out how they breed, what they eat and where to spot them. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching. at http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/fauna.shtml. 294344) and in Scotland (No. Does risk of predation by mammalian predators affect the spacing behavior of rodents? Bank voles have large ears (but not as large as mice) which distinguish them from other UK vole species. A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. 1999; Horne and Ylonen 1996, 1998; Koskela et al. During pregnancy and lactation, females require 30-130% more energy (Ostfeld 1985). In the 1950s, this species was introduced into south western Ireland. Populations have frequently been recorded in Finland (Oksanen et al. American Naturalist, 126: 1-15. VAT No. They are also sometimes known to be cannibalistic. United Kingdom: Andromeda Oxford Limited. Myodes glareolus have been characterized as omnivorous (Ostfeld 1985) and herbivorous (Macdonald 2001). Effects of food addition on the seasonal density-dependent structure of bank vole, *Clethrionomys glareolus*, populations. 1997. Maternal effort and male quality in the bank vole, *Clethrionomys glareolus*. Horne, T., H. Ylonen. 1998; Koskela et al. 1997) and the United Kingdom (Bellamy et al. Topics Bellamy, P., R. Shore, D. Ardeshir, J. Treweek, T. Sparks. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. @2018 - Conserveireland. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. From 1 to 10 pups are born per litter with approximately 4 litters born per breeding season (Macdonald 2001; Oksanen et al. If you hear a rustling in the undergrowth, stay very still and quiet and you might catch a glimpse of a foraging vole. Their body is covered by thick fur in shades of brown or gray. Teeth are prismatic and are characterized by flat crowns, which are adapted for their herbivorous diet (Macdonald 2001). Yoccoz, N., N. Stenseth, H. Henttonen, A. Prevot-Julliard. Accessed Females reach sexual maturity after six weeks and males after eight. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 38: 401-405. We are restoring, planting and protecting woods and trees to help maintain the biodiversity so vital to all of our native wildlife. 1997; Horne and Ylonen 1996). Bank voles partially escape predation by remaining under cover in underground tunnels or runways in grass and vegetation. Oecologia, 122: 4877-492. Journal of Animal Ecology, 37: 75-97. The bank vole has a well developed sense of smell which is important for receiving information on individuals who have used territorial scent markings in an area. "U.S. They may be hard to spot. young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. Coniferous or boreal forest, located in a band across northern North America, Europe, and Asia. Bank voles usually breed in shallow burrows. Bank voles prefer habitats which offer plenty of dense undergrowth like those found in deciduous woodlands, hedgerows, copses and overgrown ditches, they will only inhabit coniferous forests that have not fully matured and contain a thick shrub layer.

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