Once a female accepts a male they become quite inseparable from each other and within their territory seldom venture more than fifty feet away from each other. The nest can be located on the ground or on low, horizontally oriented tree branches. In mainland North America, 4 of these were formerly classified as separate species, the Slate-colored, White-winged, Oregon and Gray-headed juncos. Keith A. Arnold Version 6.2 2006. Please contact them directly with respect to any copyright or licensing questions. e-mail: [email protected] Depending on the…. document.write(''); They then attract the attention of the arriving females by dropping their wings and flaring their tails in order to show off their white, lateral tail feathers. 2002, Sauer et al. The species' Latin name "hyemalis" translates into "winter;" and the genus name, Junco, roughly means "bird of bushes or reeds" - referring to their preferred habitats. Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and J. Fallon. They have gray hoods and backs and white bellies, and dark tails with distinctive white, lateral tail feathers. Southern populations are sedentary (non-migratory) except for some altitudinal movements to avoid severe weather conditions. They typically feed on the ground and move about both by walking and by hopping (a single hop can cover thirty centimeters). Juveniles are brown in color and have finely streaked, white breasts. Terms Of Use / Copyright Restrictions, Site Privacy Policy | Report Abuse | Website Administrator | Web Design by Drupal Development Services. Elsewhere Dark-eyed Juncos breed from Alaska across Canada to Southern Labrador and northern Newfoundland and south into the northeastern United States and the Appalachian Mountains (Slate-colored Junco). Migrate south for the winter. Appearance 1998. An individual junco tends to stay in a single foraging flock for the entire winter. They have short, triangular beaks and dark eyes. The Red-backed form is a common breeder (within its lmited habitat) at the upper elevations in the Guadalupe Mountains and an uncommon and local winter resident elsewhere in the Trans-Pecos region (Lockwood and Freeman 2004). Resplendent Quetzals - The Rare Jewel Birds of the World. The incubation period is 12-13 days and nestlings fledge 9-12 days after hatching and feed themselves 2 weeks after leaving the nest. A unique education agency, the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service teaches Texans wherever they live, extending research-based knowledge to benefit their families and communities. bird feeding stations) can greatly reduce the size of the foraging range and overall rate of movement. Foraging Flocks The most common form in winter is Slate-colored Junco found mostly through the eastern two-thirds of the state. Depending on their range, they can be found in subarctic taiga (boreal forests) and high altitude mountain forests; but may also be seen in fields, parks and backyards. Union 1998). In Pennsylvania, in addition to winter populations of “bird feeder” Northern Juncos, we have observed dense, summer populations of this species in the mixed hardwood forests of the Allegheny National Forest in the northwest section of the state. Rates of parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) vary widely (Harrison 1979, Nolan et al. It is about 40% sunflower seeds of various types in order to attract the widest variety of birds. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. This site is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The breeding season of the Red-backed Junco in the Guadalupe Mountains extends from mid-April to mid-August (young birds in a nest as late as August 5).. The Northern Junco is five to six and a half inches long and weighs between one half and nine tenths of an ounce. It has smaller seeds that juncos love, without very much milo. Those found in the eastern half of the U.S. are charcoal gray on top with white bellies and known as slate-colored types. They mainly eat insects and seeds. The species' Latin name "hyemalis" translates into "winter;" and the genus name, Junco, roughly means "bird of bushes or reeds" - referring to their preferred habitats. All four of these subspecies winter in Texas along with two other forms, the Pink-sided and Red-backed juncos (Oberholser 1974, Am, Ornithol. Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. Scientific Name: The plumage ranges in color from various shades of grey to grey-brown, with conspicuous white outer tail feathers, and either a grey or blackish head. 2005). Natural ranges can be quite extensive (a single flock of juncos can feed in an area of ten to twelve acres), while human-modified ranges (i.e. Sometimes it is simply a gathering of pine needles and grasses, sometimes it has a foundation of sticks on top of which softer materials are layered. The Northern Junco is a very common bird at almost any winter bird feeder throughout the United States. Dark-eyed Junco is a complex taxon of identifiable forms, groups and subspecies. The bird life of Texas, University of Texas Press, Austin. Red-backed Juncos breed in the Guadalupe Mountains from 2100 to 2650 m (7000 to 8700 ft) in pine-Douglas fir forests (Oberholser 1974). A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. The female selects a nest site almost always on the ground, a natural cavity in the soil or among rocks, often hidden from view by overhanging vegetation or rocks. It overwinters in almost all of the lower forty-eight states (and down into northern Mexico) and has an equally broad summer/breeding range across Canada and Alaska. . Range: In the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, United States. This taxon winters in Texas from as early as September 2 until May 27 with the largest numbers present from mid-October to mid-April.. These birds nest in well concealed locations either on the ground or low in shrubs or trees. This page was last updated on Range: High mountains of Chiapas (southeast Mexico) and Guatemala. Dark-eyed Junco is an uncommon to abundant migrant and winter resident across the northern two-thirds of Texas. It is only provided for educational and entertainment purposes, and is in no way intended as a substitute for The cavity is lined by the female with coarse grasses and dead leaves to form a cup with an inner layer of fine grasses, hair and sometimes feathers. During the 1987-1992 field work of the TBBA project, observers reported 9 breeding records for Dark-eyed Juncos. Range: High mountains of Mexico, southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Diet Described as snapping, twittering or fast trills that are reminiscent of the rattling of small ball bearings. The final probable record and 2 possible records deserve further study. 2005. Dark-eyed Junco (. The outside diameter is 8.9 cm (3.5 in), inside diameter is 5.7 cm (2.3 in) and cup depth 4.3 cm (1.7 in; Nolan et al. DISTRIBUTION. The Guadalupes are the only site where this author reported breeding in Texas by Dark-eyed Junco. 2002). STATUS. Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The Juncos, members of the bird genus Junco, comprise three to eight species of small American finches. Courtesy Linda Meerten Meer There are more than a dozen types of dark-eyed juncos across the United States, like this Oregon junco. 2002. Two successful clutches may be raised in one season. user = "dys100"; The TOS handbook of Texas birds. These small, sparrow-like birds have an average length of 6 inches or 15 cm. Those breeding in the northern parts of this species' range migrate south for the winter - with a wintering range that stretches from Mexico through to the Central American country of Panama. In mainland North America, 4 of these were formerly classified as separate species, the Slate-colored, White-winged, Oregon and Gray-headed juncos. They sport a bi-colored bill—dark gray on top, silvery on the bottom—a gray head, lighter gray throat and breast, gray and rust wings, a red back, and dark eyes, with a dark eye smudge. The nest may be made of a variety of materials. Like most sparrows, the Northern Junco will eat a wide variety of foods. BREEDING HABITAT. A male will sing from the top of a tall tree to claim an area of two to three acres. Near human habitations juncos may also build their nests in the crawl spaces underneath buildings or even inside the buildings themselves or on window ledges. July 20, 2014 Their beaks are especially well adapted to cracking open even tough seeds (including sunflower seeds at bird feeders and an extensive number of wild plant (“weed”) seeds in natural habitats). Males move into their summer breeding habitats in northern coniferous or mixed hardwood forests before females and mark off their individual breeding territories. Dept. Checklist of North American birds, 7. These flocks gather together thirty minutes before sunrise and disperse forty-five minutes before sunset each day. Thank you for visiting Penn State New Kensington. Junco hyemalis. American Ornithologists’ Union. The female builds the nest all on her own.

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