They are opportunistic pathogens and cause infections of wounds, the urinary tract and the respiratory tract. 17, 1791–1798 (2011). (13). Although the pyocins produced by P. aeruginosa share a similar domain structure, the order of the translocation and receptor recognition domains is switched. E. ludwigii, named after Wolfgang Ludwig, a microbiologist working in bacterial systematics[51] and who developed the ARB databases as well as making them public. Bush K, Jacoby GA. Jacoby GA, Chow N, Waites KB. [1] It is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is facultatively anaerobic, and bears peritrichous flagella. Paterson DL. Table 1. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Molecular epidemiology of systemic infection caused by Enterobacter cloacae in a high-risk neonatal intensive care unit. ), Aerobacter cloacae in 1958 (Hormaeche and Edwards) and E. cloacae in 1960 (Hormaeche and Edwards), by which it is still known today. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. For purposes of this chapter, the discussion of earlier articles retains the designation of E. sakazakii. qnr gene nomenclature. Specific distribution within the Enterobacter cloacae complex of strains isolated from infected orthopedic implants. 50 (1), 175–178 (2012). 50, 1610–1611 (2006). Guidance for control of infections with carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae in acute care facilities. 20, 440–458 (2007). Studies have shown that Enterobacter cloacae has caused an outbreak of infections in many hospital burn centers. Williams JGK, Kubelick AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Edwards PR, Fife MS. Eleven undescribed Arizona serotypes isolated from man. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. In addition to their capsule, which may contribute to serum resistance and resistance to phagocytosis, strains of E. cloacae frequently produce aerobactin, adhere to tissue culture cells, and exhibit mannose-sensitive hemagglutination, possibly the result of type 1 fimbriae expression.325 E. sakazakii can adhere to and invade brain microvascular endothelial cells, a trait that it shares with strains of ExPEC that produce K1 capsule and cause neonatal meningitis.326. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 119 (6 Suppl. 58, 256–260 (2009). [7] E. cloacae is ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments (water, sewage, soil and food). Prevalence in the United States of aac(6')-Ib-cr encoding a ciprofloxacin modifying enzyme. 4, No. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. E. hormaechei is named after Estenio Hormaeche, a Uruguayan microbiologist who (with PR Edwards) proposed and defined the genus Enterobacter. Molecular epidemiology of the integronlocated VEB-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in nosocomial enterobacterial isolates in Bangkok, Thailand. 54, 969–976 (2010). 8, 281–289 (2002). Journal of Microbiology. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Enterobacter cloacae is the most frequently isolated Enterobacter species from humans and animals. The bacteria contain what is called beta-lactamase, which can be undetectable, and this is quite resistant to antibiotics like cephalosporins in the third generation. When ammonia is present it is often mistaken for something else when it is actually this bacterium. 9, 186–187 (1991). Outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter taylorae, two new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. American Journal of Medicine. Some ways that this bacterium can spread include exposure to blood products, the use of endoscopes, touching the hands of medical staff, hospital equipment, dialysis machines, and other contamination. Organisms such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas fluorescens are frequent contaminants in blood culture studies. This bacteria produces Beta-lactamases called cephalosporinases, which are chromosomally encoded. Enterobacter have been identified in pasteurized milk and cream and in dried dairy products; possibly due to postprocess contamination, as these bacteria do not survive pasteurization. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Ren Y, Ren Y, Zhou Z et al. However, the bacterium can be found in many more habitats: Researchers have detected Enterobacter cloacae not only in faecal samples of humans and animals, but they have also found the bacterium in plants, water, insects, and food. Assessment of pathogen occurrences and resistance profiles among infected patients in the intensive care unit: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (North America, 2001). 51, 1109–1117 (2003). Irina Knezevic Maramica MD, PhD, in Transfusion Medicine and Hemostasis (Second Edition), 2013. [43] Erwinia nimipressuralis was inserted in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in 1980. 1923 Aerobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958 Erwinia dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Burkholder 1948 Pseudomonas dissolvens Rosen 1922 Bacterium dissolvens Rosen 1922 Phytomonas dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926 Aplanobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926 Aerobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Waldee 1945 Enterobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Brenner et al. The bacteria used in the study were isolated from giant panda feces. Abstract and Introduction Abstract. 55 (3), 326–332 (2005). Klebsiella pneumoniae, like Enterobacter cloacae, causes a positive rabbit ileal-loop response, and a heat-stable enterotoxin similar to that produced by E. coli has been purified and characterized. The size of this bacteria ranges from 0.3-0.6 x 0.8-2.0 μm. Krzyminska S, Mokracka J, Koczura R, Kaznowski A. Cytotoxic activity of Enterobacter cloacae human isolates. Researchers have found that E. cloacae is a common inhabitant of hospital equipment such as IV’s (22). “Enterobacter cloacae.” Crop Knowledge Master. SOS promoters (PSOS) and transcription terminators (T) are indicated by arrows. P. GenBank New holotype for Enterobacter cloacae subsp. [10] The whole-genome shotgun sequencing project was submitted in 2011 to the Human Genome Sequencing Center (TX, USA; GenBank accession number AFHR00000000).


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